Immunoglobulin E

Human Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a protein with a molecular weight of 190,000 daltons.  It is composed of two heavy chains and a pair of light chains linked together by disulphide.  A function of IgE is the immunity to parasites. In industrialized countries, IgE has also an important role in allergic reaction (type I hypersensitivity) … Continued


Various types of organic diseases in the gastrointestinal tract may cause damage to the intestinal epithelial lining (mucosa layer). Such damage may vary from increased permeability of the mucosa to inflammation and ulcerations. The bowel content is rich in bacteria and other microorganisms releasing substances which may be toxic or chemotactic, i.e. they stimulate leukocytes, … Continued


Transferrin is a protein with a molecular weight of approximately 79.6 kDa. It is the main protein of iron transport (III). It is synthesised mostly in the liver, but also in the choroid plexus of the brain. The transferrin plasma concentration is regulated by the availability of iron in the body: during iron deficiency, the … Continued

Rheumatoid factor

Rheumatoid factors are antibodies present in cases of rheumatoid arthritis, but also of Sjögren’s syndrome, scleroderma, dermatomyositis, Waldenström’s disease, sarcoidosis or even disseminated lupus erythematosus. Rheumatoid factors are generally used for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, and with anti-CCP antibodies, are the only biomarkers selected by the American Rheumatism Association for this pathology classification. These … Continued

Retinol Binding Protein (RBP)

Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is an unglycosylated protein synthesised by the liver. The role of RBP is to transport retinol (vitamin A) from the liver to the target tissues (retina, skin, etc.) in the bloodstream. This protein is then metabolised, filtered and reabsorbed in the kidney. RBP is a sensitive marker of undernutrition and the monitoring … Continued


Prealbumin, renamed transthyretin, is a non-glycosylated protein with a molecular mass of 34.98 kDa. This protein is synthesised in the liver. Prealbumin is a good indicator of the nutritional status of the patient. Its serum concentration will decrease in the case of liver disease, protein malnutrition, or in case of the acute inflammatory phase. A … Continued

Alpha2-macroglobulin (urine)

Alpha2-macroglobulin is a very large size (725 kDa) protease inhibitor, primarily synthesised by hepatic parenchyma cells. It is involved in the inhibition of enzymes acting in the kinin-kallikrein, complement, coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. In addition to these inhibitor roles, alpha2-macroglobulin is used as a transporter for many small peptides (such as cytokines or growth factors), … Continued


The presence of protein in the urine is an indicator of various kidney diseases, including the progressive decline of the glomerulus. Kidney disease develops in 30-40% of insulin-dependent diabetics. The early detection of small quantities of albumin in the urine (concentrations of the order of 20 to 50 mg/L) enables early diagnosis of the disease, … Continued

Lipoprotein (a)

Lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)) is a particle composed of lipids and proteins; a portion of this particle consists of phospholipids, cholesterol and a specific apolipoprotein, apolipoprotein B100, identical to LDL (low-density lipoprotein), which transports cholesterol.  The other part is an apolipoprotein (a) linked to apolipoprotein B100 by disulphide bridges. Apolipoprotein (a) (not to be confused … Continued

Immunoglobulin M

Immunoglobulins (Igs) are proteins contributing to immunity mechanisms. Immunity is specific to the lymphoid system, which consists of organs (spleen, thymus, bone marrow) and cells (lymphocytes). Immunoglobulins are secreted by B lymphocytes in the blood, and in this way are exported for the specific functions of humoral immunity. Immunoglobulin M is the most primitive and … Continued